History of the Caribbean

In between Florida and Venezuela, there are a number of islands. The islands are located nearby to Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and Cuba. Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and Cuba are the three largest islands located in the Caribbean.

Since the 2000 B.C., mankind has started to conduct explorations on these island chains. The Ciboney are the first to discover the group of islands. Ciboney is a term given by the archaeologists to the hunter gatherers who used to live on the islands.

During the Christian era, the Arawak had moved to the islands. When they arrive at the islands, they force the Ciboney to leave. By 1000 A.D., the Caribs came and made the Arawak to leave.

The Arawak has a fiercer temper than the Caribs. They are violent and cruel in carrying out punishment on their enemies. It is a custom to marry the women and eat the men in the Arawak culture. The Arawak refers to the Caribs people as canibas.

When the Spaniards discovered the islands, they are shocked to discover the islands is occupied by the Canibas who are inclined to eat human flesh. They spread the news about the Canibas in Europe. Soon, everyone is calling the Arawak as the cannibal.

In 1492, Columbus sailed to the island of Bahamas and Greater Antilles.  Columbus found that the Arawak live in the northern islands. He also discovered that the islands in the south are occupies by the Caribs.

The exact date that Columbus arrived on the island is 12th October 1492. Upon their arrival, they plant a flag that belongs to Spain in the ground. By planting the flag, they are acknowledging that the island is a property to Ferdinand and Isabella.  The island is named as San Salvador by Columbus. San Salvador means Jesus the Savior in Spanish.  Archaeologists do not know on which of the island that Columbus landed on. However, they do know that Columbus and his group arrive at one of the islands in the Bahamas.

Columbus and his crew are not the first people from Europe to arrive at America.  However, they are the first to arrive and stuck their flags in the ground. Columbus felt that he had arrived at the East Indies. The inhabitants of the island warmly welcome Columbus and his men. Columbus called the native people as Indians. Later, the Europeans call the region as the West Indies.

After a few days, Columbus and his men explore more islands. They give each of the island they explore a unique Spanish name. In November, Columbus came across the most important land in his expedition. He came across a large island called Cuba. Columbus is convinced that the large island is Cipango. Marco Polo describes this island as an extraordinary place that is located in the eastern Asia. Many readers thought Marco Polo is referring the island as Japan.

Columbus explored another large island located to Cuba. He named the island after his home country, Espanola. Espaniola is also known as Hispaniola.  While they sailed to the shores, the bottom of the ship lodged in the ground of the sea shore and lay waste. Since the ship is wrecked, the men have no choice but to stay in the island. Forty men from Columbus crew stayed on the island and survived on the remaining food for a year. In the meantime, Columbus returned to Spain and reported his discoveries to the queen.

On 15th March, Columbus reached Palos. The Pinta also reaches Palos on the 15th March.  Once Columbus arrived at Palos, he went to Barcelona to meet with the king in the court of Ferdinand and Islabella. He showed the royal monarchs a few captives taken from the Bahamas. He also presented some gold to them.

During the peak of his carrier, Columbus takes a sea voyage to the west after his meeting with Ferdinand and Isabella. Columbus wants to establish small colonies of people in these places. He took seventeen ships with him. The seventeen ships were occupied by one thousand and five hundred people. After leaving Cadiz, he came across Guadalupe and Puerto Rico. When they arrived in Hispaniola, they discovered that the forty crew men on the islands are already killed by the natives.

The news about the death of the forty crew men causes dissatisfaction among the Spanish settler who is about to move into the New World.

In 1496, Columbus made a return trip to face his rivals at the court. He managed to overcome the critics and sailed to the west in 1498. The king gave Columbus a powerful position of authority in the third voyage. Due to some problems, Ferdinand and Isabella dispatched a governor to the island. The governor seizes Columbus and sent him back to Spain in chains.

Ferdinand and Isabella welcomed Columbus in the court pathetically. Despite that, Columbus is constantly rewarded for his achievements. Columbus was not allowed to visit the colonies on the islands. His negotiation with the king and queen lead him to a new expedition in the west. The purpose of the expedition is to find new sea passage in the west. The expedition is the fourth voyage of Columbus.

Columbus left the island on May 1502. During the journey, he injured his leg and had to sailed back home to Spain. He arrived at Spain in November 1504. Columbus had been spending his time in the New World since 1492 because he believes he had discovered a new land. Within a few years, the new world is being linked to Europe.

Fortified military posts were setup in Puerto Rico, Jamaica and Cuba. The establishment of the fortified military posts causes the islands to come under the dominion of the Spanish. The three islands are the springboard for the Spanish armed forces to conquer Mexico and Central America.

In the 16th century, pirates from England conquered the rich Spanish fleets. The islands remained to be the Spanish preserve. However, there are too many islands for the Spanish to control. In the 1600 A.D, people from England and France came to live on the outside boundary of the islands.

The English came to discover the island in the West Atlantic by an accident. In 1609, an English vessel was caught in a ship wrecked. The crew found safety aboard the island of Bermuda. As soon as they discovered the island, a ship that carried sixty colonists was dispatched.

After 30 years, religion tensions cause a group of people to find another place to settle. In 1648, the English live in the islands in Bahamas on the northern Caribbean. The islands are the same ones that Columbus discovered in 1492.  After that, the Spanish took 40,000 Arawak Indians in captivity to work as miner in Hispaniola.

The Spanish often raid the eastern islands on Caribbean to find slaves to work for them. The British established small colonies in St. Kitts in 1623. They formed settlements in Barbados in 1627. In 1636, they established settlements in Antigua, Nevis and Montserrat. The French established settlements in St. Kitts in 1627. In 1632, the French occupied Dominica. In 1635, they conquered Martinique and Guadeloupe.

By the 17th century, most of the islands that once belonged to Spain were conquered by Britain and France. The English vessel arrived and conquered Jamaica in 1655.  The France West India Company conquered the western region of Hispaniola in 1664. Hispaniola is the modern day Haiti.

The Spanish lost several of their Caribbean territories to the European forces. Jamaica was captured by Britain in 1655. The ownership of Trinidad was transferred to the British in 1802. Most of the islands that belonged to the Spanish are gaining their independence in the 1820s. The local residents started to consider having a self government. They don’t like to abide under the rules of a foreign government. During the liberal period, the state of Cuba and Puerto Rico had joined forces to rebel against the government. They want to unite together into one government. However, the Spain declared a constitution that Cuba and Puerto Rico are to not have connection with the Cortes. Instead, Cube and Puerto Rico must be governed by special laws.

The slave emancipation have a great impact on Puerto Rico and Cuba. There was an upriot in Puerto Ricon in 1868. During the Ten Years’ War of 1868-78, more than 200,000 slaves died. The Ten Years’ War started as soon as Carlos Manuel de Céspedes declares independence of Cuba. The Spanish forces put a lot of pressure on the rioters. The United States was concerned with the terrible situation of the riot in Cuba so they begun to intervene in the matter. On February 1898, the United States battleship Maine sunk at Havana harbor. The explosion of the battleship causes the death of 260 persons. The United States uses it as an excuse to claim the independence of Cuba. If Spanish will not surrender Cuba, the United States will declare war against it. On the 1st May, the American troop enters Manila to attack the Spanish ships. The American troop also sunk the Spanish ship located near the shores of Cuba. Later, the Spanish surrendered its forces to the United States.

The Spanish transferred the ownership of Puerto Rico, Philippines and Guam to the United States through the 1898 treaty. Cuba surrendered itself to the United States because its residents put their trust on them.

History of St. Martin

More than five hundred years ago, a sea captain was commanded by the Spanish’s king to find new land. The mission of the sea captain is to conquer the land or claim it. During his voyage, he comes across an island. He named the island St. Martin. The sea captain is Saint Maarten or Saint Martin is a Spanish name for the founder of the island. The name of the founder of the island is St. Martin of Tours. He found the island on the 11th November 1493. It is not known whether Columbus discovered this island. The island’s name was pronounced in the same way as the English pronounce it. St. Martin lived between 330 – 397. He was a bishop in Gaul. He is also the head of the monastery in Gaul. He is one of the most important saints who live in the western Europe. He is one of the figures who is not martyr by the pagan and yet called saints by the public.

When Columbus set sail in the sea, the island of St. Martin was already colonized by the Arawak and Caribbean Indians. The Arawaks were being dominated by the fiercer Caribbean Indians. The Caribbeans Indians came from the South America. They arrive at the St. Martin island a short period before the Spanish came. The Caibbeans Indians is also called canibal. Later, the word canibal was evolved into the English word cannibal, which means indigenous people who eat human flesh as food.  The Arawak people are rich in their own cultures. They cultivate the land to earn a living. Besides, they make pottery. The families of the Arawak have leaders called Chieftan. According to the Arawak people, the chieftan receive the power from their deity called Zemis.

The Caribbean Indian men are fierce in warfare. When they first arrived at the island, they saw the Arawak people were already settled there. To claim the land as their own, they force the Arawak people to move northward. During the war, many Arawak people are killed by the Caribbean Indian. The Caribbean Indian cooked the Arawak men and eat them for their meals. They married the Arawak women and have children by them. The feelings of the Arawak women are not recorded. No scientists have found any evidence regarding whether the Arawak women fight back against the Caribbean Indian.

One day, the Spanish vessels arrived at St. Martin Island. They conquered the island by attacking the Indians who settled there. In 1550, some Arawak people live in Cuba and Trinidad. The settlements of the Carib Indians are not destroyed until the mid 1600s. During the mid 1600s, the settlements of the Carib Indians are being destroyed by the French, English and Dutch people.  The Dutch people extract salt from the pond water in 1620.

The Spanish troops reconquered the island in 1633.  After a year, a fort was constructed at Pointe Blanche by the Spaniards. The Spaniards carry slaves from Africa to the St. Martin in the 17th century. However, most numbers of slaves were being brought into the island during the 18th century. The slaves were brought to the St. Martin Island to work on the sugar plantations. During the early 19th century, it becomes illegal to use the African as slaves. Despite that, the culture of slavery was not stopped. The English people use the Chinese and East Indians as slaves for the sugar plantations in St. Martin Island. Therefore, the island contains a mixture of American Indian and Asian people. The St. Martin Island is rich with the West Indian culture. In fact, the island has the richest West Indian culture in the world.

During the mid 16th century, many pirated eyed on the shipping cargo. They wanted to attack the ship because of the Mexican silver in the cargo. The Spaniards were not able to prevent the pirates from attacking the ship. Some of the popular English buccaneers include Sir John Hawkins, Sir Francis Drake and Sir Henry Morgan. During those days, the Sea Beggers called Geuzen are active in raiding ship. The colonists face obstacles in developing a new navy because there are thousands of privateer in the United States.  Privateering was somewhat abolished after the Declaration of Paris took placeon 1856. Privateering is completely abolished by the 20th century during the Seventh Hague Convention. Many people claimed there is a treasure chest on the island. However, no one had found it up to this day. Bucanners is a term derived from the French word called boucan. The French privateers used to grill the meat. The grilled meat is called boucans.

Privateering is quite common because several countries fought for the Caribbean. Some of the countries who are fighting for the Caribbean include England, Spain, Portugal and Denmark. The Netherland and France are also fighting for the dominion of the islands in the Caribbean. Dutch had conquered several islands in the Caribbean in between 1630 – 1649. The islands which are being conquere by the Dutch include Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Martin. The Dutch use these islands as smuggling depots. The French formed its own navy in 1635. The French navy is called “Compagnie des Ilsles d’Amerique”. The French and the Spanish rule the St. Martin in 1649. For the last 15 years, the Spain had taken control of the St. Martin island. The Spanish domino over the St. Martin Island lasted for two years, which is from 1631 – 1633. The Spanish seized the St. Martin Island when the Dutch was ruling over it. St. Martin was dominated by the Dutch for seven times during the period between 1631 – 1816. The shortest period the Dutch control St. Martin is for 10 days. The longest period the Dutch rule St. Martin is 180 years plus.

The English had conquered St. Martin for 3 times.  The first conquer conducted by the English people occur in 1718. The English dominion over St. Martin lasted for 10 months. The second conquer took place in 1801. The English manage to gain control over the island for 1 year and 8 months in between 1801 and 1802. The British conquered St. Martin again in 1810. The English dominion over the St. Martin Island lasted for 6 years from 1810 – 1816.  The French people have conquered St. Martin Island for 4 times. The French colonization in St. Martin occurs in between 1672 – 1801. St. Martin was not dominated by any forces for thirteen years and three months. The period during which St. Martin Island was not controlled lasted from January 27, 1690 to April 10, 1703.  The Dutch have been conquering St. Martin Island now and then since 1620s. Peter Stuyvesant broke his leg on the St. Martin Island when he was attempting to conquer the Portuguese soldier. The incident of Peter Stuyvesant losing his leg caused him to receive a nickname called Peg Leg. At that time, Peter anchored his ship at the bay in St. Martin Island. The bay which Peter anchored his ship is Cay Bay. He led his soldiers up to Little Bay Hill to charge a surprise attack against the Portuguese. The Portuguese soldiers were taking turns to guard the Fort Amsterdam. The Portuguese soldier won the battle. Peter accidentally broke his leg during the battle. Later, Peter traveled to America and rule as a governor over Nieuw Amsterdam. After many years, the British conquered Nieuw Amsterdam and called it New York.

In the early days, the main industry in St. Martin Island is the tobacco plantation. The slaves that work in the tobacco plantation are mostly European prisoners. The tobacco plantation did not proliferate in St. Martin Island. As a result, the small land lords are moving away to other places in the mid 1700s. At that time, sugar plantation was setup throughout the St. Martin Island. Sugar production causes the land owners to become very rich. Many slaves were imported to St. Martin Island to work on the sugar plantation. Soon, there are more slaves than the employed European workers. Due to the profitable sugar production industry, many countries are fighting for St. Martin Island. Many peace treaties that include the transfers of the Caribbean islands are being conducted.

The sugar plantation in the Caribbean slowly becomes less profitable because many countries also have sugar plantations. With the increasing supply of sugar, the price drops so that sugar becomes very cheap. The abolition of slavery in St. Martin Island on the 27th April 1848 causes the European forces to leave St. Martin Island alone. Nobody was at the island to work the sugar plantation. By the 19th century, the West Indian Islands become poverty stricken and neglected.

Later, airplanes were invented by the Wright Brothers. When the technology of airplane becomes more advanced, tourists started to visit the St. Martin Island. Two governments have help to make the people in St. Martin island settle in peace. Today, St. Martin Island has a vibrant tourism industry. Every year, St. Martin Island received thousands of visitors from around the world.

History of Trinidad and Tobago

Trinidad and Tobago have different history even though they share the same government. Trinidad and Tobago have been conquered by different parties throughout the years. Trinidad and Tobago have been united for more than a century. The history of Trinidad and Tobago has a number of similarities.

Columbus came across the Trinidad Island during his sea voyage n 1498. As soon as he arrived at the island, he planted the flag on the ground to claim it as a property of Spain. At this period, many countries in Europe are looking for gold. They have sent out troops in sea voyages to find gold. Trinidad is not a land that is rich with gold. Due to this fact, the Spanish decided not to make settlement in that place. The Spanish is not the first people to arrive on the island.

The island of Trinidad used to be settled by the Carib Indian and Arawak people. The Carib and Arawak are Amerindian people. It is not sure whether the Carib dominate the Arawak people or the Arawak people dominate the Carib people. Carib people are fiercer than the Arawak people. Most of the populations on the island of Trinidad are the Arawak people. There is very little recorded evidences about the Carib and Arawak people because the Spanish capture them and make them work as slaves.

The Spanish took over Trinidad since three centuries ago. They did not send settlers to Trinidad immediately. Some of the officials suggested to the monarch that they should give the Amerindians a better treatment. Despite that, they enslave the people of Arawak. There were no plantations cultivated on the land until 1718. After 1718, cocoa plants were being planted on the island. The cocoa crops did not prosper and Trinidad’s economy was ruined.

The island of Trinidad has less than 800 inhabitants in 1772. With so little inhabitants, the Spanish planned to trick its people to settle on Trinidad. The Spanish government successfully recruits about three hundred Spanish settlers. When the settlement takes place, there are approximately 400 Amerindians. Later, several French people came to settle on the island. Spain offers a lot of benefits for the dark skin Catholic immigrants. Despite that, the government still has discrimination on the dark skin immigration. The white settlers are given twice as much land than the dark skin settlers. The white settlers that have brought in slaves are granted an extra land for per slave. The immigrants must submit themselves to the Spanish monarch.

Twenty five years after the first settlement, the populations of Trinidad have increase to over 16,000 people. Out of sixteen thousand people, two thousand of them are white Europeans and four thousand and five hundred people are Africans. The four thousand and five hundred people are not slaves but free Africans. The British conquered the island of Trinidad on 1797. Once the British subdued Trinidad, they held discussion on what to do with the free Africans and British settlers. The British put a ban on the importation of slaves because of the terrible social and political situation.

On one of Columbus’ voyage, he came across the island of Tobago. No one paid attention to Tobago until the 17th century. The Arawak and Carib Indians call the island Tobago. When Columbus arrived on the island, he called it Assumption. The British people came to conquer the island on 1626. After Britain had conquered Tobago, they establish the first settlers on the island. Soon, many countries in the Europe are fighting for the island.

The Spanish conquered the British government in 1636. After the Spanish conquered Tobago, they started to have fear that the people will join forces with the people on Trinidad. The Duchy of Courland was given authority to take control of the island in 1639. France and Holland fought for the ownership in Tobago. Latvia also send fighting vessel to Tobago to take over the island. Latvia conquered the island during the 1664. In order to conquer Tobago, France engaged in a battle with Netherlands. France won the battle over Netherlands in 1678. Courland relinquish from the war during 1690. Tobago was conquered by many European forces but none of them really settle down on the island.

During 1700s, there are a lot of wars between the major armed forces in the world. France and Britain reach a neutral agreement in 1749. However, the neutral agreement only takes effect for a short period. France joined forces with Spain to fight with Britain in 1956. British managed to overcome the forces of France and Spain and claimed Tobago as its territory.

In 1781, France engaged in a war with Britain to claim back Tobago. The population on Tobago increase to more than fifteen thousand after France took over Tobago. Out of the fifteen thousand residents, fourteen thousands of them are slaves. Starting from the latter part of the 1700s, there is no more fighting between the major forces. The ownership of Tobago was transferred to Britain from France during the 1803. After that, the British had control over Tobago until independence was given to them.

During the reign of Britain, Trinidad was given the status Crown Colony. Britain endow Trinidad the status because they of the high number of dark skin inhabitants on the island that own land. The dark skin people are not allowed to vote. They are completely banished from participating in the political activities. Since most of the white people are not British, no one raise objections about it.

In 1834, the British Emancipation granted Tobago the permission to set up its own government. The British Emancipation did not help to improve the economy of Tobago. In order to support the economy, Tobago was converted to a census-designated place. The workers are not paid a salary for their labors. However, the landowners will share the profits of the crops with the workers. Despite that, the new law did not help to increase the economy activity.

The 1834 British Emancipation has effect on Trinidad as well. Before the 1834 British Emancipation take place, imports of slaves are prohibited in Trinidad. Though there is not enough people to work in the plantations, all kinds of crops were grown in Trinidad. Some of the crops that are grown in Trinidad include sugar, cotton, and coffee. The slaves that are imported from China did not stay for a long time in Trinidad because the men are moved to the island without supports from their families. Though the British government banned the imports of slaves, many managed to smuggle the slaves into the island. Many Indian workers were smuggled to the island. The Indian and Chinese serve as indentured workers in between 1845 – 1917.

In 1833, Trinidad came under the dominion of Barbados. Trinidad was controlled by Barbados along with the neighboring countries including Grenada, and St. Vincent. Tobago did not want to surrender their rights to Britain. However, the dispute between Tobago and Britain are settled. In the later years, the British government united the island of Tobago and Trinidad.

The races and status of the people have plays an important role in impacting the history of the islands. During the 1897, the sugar plantations in the Caribbean islands failed. Due to the failing of the sugar plantations, the economy of the islands deteriorated.

In 1910, Trinidad’s economy was restored when someone discovered oil on the island. After the World War I, the peple of Trinidad receives rights to vote and be involved in the political system. The sugar plantations in Trinidad no longer exist. In 1929, the economy of Trinidad Island was completely supported by the oil production.

In 1937, the poverty stricken condition caused the people held strike against the government. In 1946, Trinidad has the first universal election. The People’s National Movement (PNM) organized a meeting in 1956 in Trinidad. Through the conference, many political and social agenda was put forward. The purpose of the People’s National Movement (PNM) is to improve the economy of Trinidad. People’s National Movement (PNM) also aimed to restore the social problems on the island. The president of the People’s National Movement (PNM) party is Eric Williams. Eric Williams became led the government in Trinidad for twenty years.

During the early years in 1970s, the society in Trinidad faces a lot of problems. Consequently, Trinidad went through the “February Revolution”. The February Revolution was participated by workers and students. Thousands of workers and students were creating uproar in the streets. Due to the February Revolution, Trinidad and Tobago was able to gain independence from the British government. The February Revolution last for 10 years. Trinidad and Tobago also have established economic relationship with overseas countries. The overseas countries which Trinidad and Tobago have agreement with include Cuba, China and Russia.

In 1976, the oil production in Trinidad and Tobago causes them to achieve independence status. Trinidad and Tobago achieve independence at the same time. Together, Trinidad and Tobago formed the Independent Republic. The United States is the largest economy partner with Trinidad and Tobago since 1977.  When Prime Minister Williams passed away in 1981, Trinidad and Tobago were being taken over by a different political party. The political party that took over Trinidad and Tobago is called National Alliance for Reconstruction. Trinidad and Tobago were controlled by the National Alliance for Reconstruction in 1986.

In 1990, there is an upriot to change the government by force. Despite that, the upriot did not manage to overthrow the government. There are many discriminations between different ethnic on Trinidad and Tobago.  Recently, the society in Trinidad and Tobago has settled peacefully.

History of Portugal

The terms “Portugal” emanates from the Roman “Portus Cale”. “Cale” had been an ancient population settled at the delta of the Douro River that fell into the Atlantic in the north of what is now Portugal. About 200 BC, the romans overtoook the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians in the 2nd Punic War, and during the process captured Cale and gave it the new title “Portus Cale” meaning Port of Cale.

In the Middle Ages, the territory in the vicinity of Portus Cale was famously proclaimed as Portucale by the Suevi and visigoths. The name “Portucale” eventually turned into “Portugale” in the period between 7th and 8th centuries, but during the 9th century, that the term was used frequently to allude to the land between rivers Douro and Minho; the Minho flowed along the northern border between Portugal and Spain. The 11th and 12th witnessed “Portugale” transforming into “Portugal”.

Portugal Flag

The history of Portugal, as an European and an Atlantic nation, traces its known origins from the Early Middle Ages during the 15th and 16th centuries, when it rose to the status of the world power while the Age of Discovery was going on. The expansionistic expeditions of Portugese resulted in vast proportion wielding of empire such as territories in South America, Africa, Asia and Australasia.

During next couple of centuries, Portugal progressively lost a lot of its resource and prestige as the English, Dutch and French had taken an ever increasing share in slave and spice trade —the very economic dependency of the empire. The intruders were able to accomplish all this by surrounding and plundering vastly scattered Portugese trading post, and lands ransacking the territory of their economic wealth to ever dream of overseas world power.

Foreshadowing of strategic downfall started as after two fierce battles — the Battle of Alcacer Quibir held in Morocco in 1578 and Spain’s before time attempt to capture English in 1588 — Portugese at that time was in active union with Spain and shared its part of ships in the Spanish invasion fleet. Further weakening followed by the ruination of a greater part of its capital city in a 1755 earthquake, usurpation over its lands during Napoleonic wars and the cessation of the biggest colony — Brazil in 1822.


By mid 19th century through the late 1950s, about two million Portugese had left to settle in Brazil and the United States. In 1910, there had been a revolution that dethrowned the monarchical rule. Nevertheless, the republic formed subsequently showed inability to sort out national issues. Beside widespread corruption, despotism of church authority, and an approximate bankruptcy of the state, an armed coup, 1926, ushered into a dictatorial regime that was overtaken by yet another coup in 1974.

The newly formed government introduced large scale political reforms and allowed autonomy to all of Portugal’s colonies in Africa around 1975. Portugal is one of the leading member of the NATO, OECD and EFTA. Portugal joined EU in 1986.

History of Argentina

The Argentine Republic is the second largest country in South America. Geographically it is as a federation of 23 provinces in addition to an autonomous city, Buenos Aires. Argentina is the eighth largest country in the world by area and also area wise largest among Spanish speaking nations.

The name has descended from the Latin argentum meaning ‘silver’, which comes from the Ancient Greek meaning “white, shining”. Argentinos was an ancient Greek adjective meaning “silvery”. The initial use of the name Argentina dates back to the early 16th century sea faring of the Spanish and Portuguese conquerors through the Río de la Plata, famously Silver River.


The historians have divided the history of Argentina can be divided into following phases:

  • Early history or the pre-Columbian time,
  • The colonial period (roughly 1516 to 1810),
  • The independence wars,
  • The early post-colonial period of the nation (1810 to 1880)
  • The history of modern Argentina from around 1880.

Early history

The configuration of prehistory in the currently defined territory of Argentina began with the first human appearance on the southern point of Patagonia about 13,000 years ago. The first known presence of humans in Argentina is in Patagonia and dates from around 11,000 BC.

King Pachacutec, the rule of the Inca Empire, is known to have occupied present-day northwestern Argentina in 1480, merging it into a territory known as Collasuyu; the Guaraní created a culture based on sweet potato, yuca, and yerba maté. The central and southern areas were suppressed by nomads, the most densely inhabited among them were the Mapuches.

The recorded history started with the advent of Spanish historians as after the expedition of Juan Díaz de Solís had taken place in 1516 to Río de la Plata river that signifies the inception of Spanish domination in the region.

By 1776 the Spanish Crown had established the Viceroyalty of the Río de la Plata, a blanket term mentioning a wielding of territories out of which, with the Revolution of May 1810, started a process of progressive coming into being of a number of independent states, including United Provinces of Río de la Plata. After the declaration of independence on July 9, 1816 and the strategic defeat of the Spanish Empire in 1824, a federal state was established in 1853-1861, known today as the Republic of Argentina.

Modern history

A trend of foreign investment and immigration from Europe after 1870 showed the way to the emergence of modern agriculture and as a new Argentine society was reborn and the economy and the strengthening of a unified state. The rule of law was ensured in a substantial measure by Dalmacio Vélez Sársfield, who’s 1860 Commercial Code and 1869 Civil Code laid the sheet anchor for statutory laws for Argentine.

General Julio Argentino Roca’s military campaign in the 1870s established Argentine’s supremacy over the southern Pampas and Patagonia, subjugated the remaining indigenous peoples and left behind 1300 indigenous dead. Some scholars argue that it was operation of mass killing by the Argentine government.

History of White House

White House designates the official residence and chief workplace of the President of the United States. Its design was conceived by the Irish-born architect James Hoban. Built between 1792 and 1800 largely employing white-painted Aquia sandstone in the late Georgian style, the White House has been the residence of all the U.S. Presidents since the time of John Adams.

In 1801, when Thomas Jefferson shifted into the home, he, by consulting architect Benjamin Henry Latrobe, extended the building outward, making room for two colonnades meant to mask stables and storage.

White House

The building of present day White House was formerly known as the “Presidential Mansion”, “President’s Palace”, or “President’s House”. The earliest known evidence of the public pronouncing it “White House” was witnessed in 1811. The name “Executive Mansion”, however, was in vogue in official contexts as after President Theodore Roosevelt ruled out the formal name by having “White House–Washington” printed on the stationery in 1901.

The recent letterhead title shows the arrangement, “The White House” with the word “Washington” centered beneath, dates back to the administration of Franklin Delano Roosevelt.

During the War of 1812, in 1814, the house was set on fire by the British Army over the course of the Burning of Washington, ruining the interior and blazing a great proportion of the exterior. Renovation began soon afterwards, as the President James Monroe moved into the scantly refurbished house in October 1817.

In 1824, rebuilding began with the addition of the South Portico and the North by 1829. In view of the crowding in the executive mansion, President Theodore Roosevelt had to shift all work offices to the West Wing in 1901.

Less than a decade later, President William Howard Taft was able to expand the West Wing and furnished the first Oval Office to be moved at length as the section received expansion. The third-floor attic, however, was converted to residential quarters in 1927 by reinforcing the existing hip roof with longitudinal shed dormers.

The new erection of East Wing was marked as reception area for social events; Jefferson’s colonnades had linked the new wings. East Wing adaptations finished in 1946, leaving additional space for office. In 1948, the load-bearing external walls of the house and internal wooden beams approaching a near collapse. Harry S. Truman, had the interior rooms completely disassembled and a new frame work of internalized load-bearing steel was erected inside the walls. Once this job was accomplished, the interior chambers were reconstructed.

The name ‘White House’ is regularly being used as a metonym for the Executive Office of the President of the United States and also for the administration and advisers. In the year 2007, White House was ranked second on the American Institute of Architects record of “America’s Favorite Architecture.”

History of Canada

Canada having a central government (federation) is located in the North America. The country controls ten provinces, and three territories. A diverse nation Canada is replete with a rich variety of geological features, weather and eco-systems. There are rain forests in it, plain pastures, deciduous woods, tundra and wetlands.

The country abounds in lakes and territorial water than any country in the world. Renowned for its scenic beauty that haunts a tremendous influx of tourists each year. The per-capital economy of the country rates it the second largest in the world after Australia.

Canada Flag

The history of Canadian population proper dates back to the long span of the flourishing of ‘ingenious folks’, succeeded after a quarter-millennium by a collision between those people and the European colonies wherein the time span finally marks the development of Canadian national state.

By the 20th century Canada emerged as one of the world’s small group of prosperous, highly industrial, mechanized and wide-scale urbanized democracies. However, the regional constrains, ethnic hostilities, international pressure, and highly influential presence of the United States have been posing persistent threats to the countries stability and socio-cultural harmony.

The original inhabitants of Canada are known as indigenous people, often First Nations or Indians. The term ‘Canada’ is a transformation of the word that meant “village”, from one of the indigenous languages. The original people evolved into rich cultural communities. These societies, even before the advent of Europeans, exhibited complex political arrangement.

The Vikings abandoned the territory quite early than other Europeans who had amassed further during the 16th century and received a warm welcome for they had introduced industrial goods in exchange for furs and other regional goods — thereby giving business to local communities.

Nevertheless, the Europeans gradually colonized the territory and subtly displaced the natives during the next quarter of the millennium. The process is referred to as ‘dispossession’ — a phenomenon Canadians have been facing to-date because of its legal and moral implications.

The European inhabitation took place in a series of influx. The French pioneered the inhabitation, followed by the British — both the nations are considered founding settlers. The French, however, lost their possession of the territory in a war during 1760. However, a number of French national continued to thrive even afterwards. In this regard their endeavors to safeguard their culture and national identity have been shaping a history that prompts those French ethnics to seek independence from Canada.


Present day Canada was developed over the course of formation of Confederation, in 1867 during which three English colonies coalesced to give rise to the independent state based on four provinces. Afterwards, six more states in addition to three territories joined the Confederation. The country attained formal sovereignty in 1931 but remains a member of the Commonwealth of Nations — an association of nations with the UK on voluntary basis.