History of Fashion

Nineteenth Century

The impact of English dressing in America, the industrial boom, and the influence fashion witnessed on English and American civilization has been recorded over the course of century in terms of different literary devices.

Fashion in 19th century transatlantic literature has broadcasted the significance and development of fashion British author Charles dickens cites references regarding the importance of the female seamstress and the part she contributed in English society, and ideals covering femininity in one of his novels, Little Dorrit (Famine 55).

Fashion History

American Notes of Dickens still exhibit an obsession with both the American and English fashion, as he opined that the attire of American women. In Th Dark City, Leander Richardson holds a comparison between fashion trends in Boston and New York with those prevailed in London. He starizes the trends in American women to copy their British counterparts. All this dynamism of fashion gives shape to fashion in his works as a ‘transatlantic industrial market.

Godey’s Lady’s Book, the American Magazine, editor being Sara Joshua Hale links 19th century fashion as a manifestation of moral based values of the time. Her appreciation of Queen Victoria’s style of dress in 1968 unraveled her approach toward dressing of women exhibiting the English morality.

Early 20th Century

Over the course of early 20th century, all high class fashion practically appeared in Paris and to some extent in London as well. Fashion magazines published in other countries have been sending editors to the Paris fashion shows. Departmental stores had been sending buyers to the Paris shows, where they would buy garments to copy design or would readily plagiarize idea, or some times the whole design scheme.

Both kind of garments ­­­­ — measure-to-measure salons and ready-to-wear departments offered up-to-date trends of Paris — tailored to the expectations of stores pertaining to different lifestyles and target client’s pocket books.

With the advent of the 20th century fashion magazines began to depict photographs and assumed even more momentum than in the past. The metropolitan life all over the world much demanded these fine pieces of brochures as they would profoundly govern popular taste. Demonstrators, such as, Georges Lepape, Paul Iribe, George Barbier and Erte developed exotic fashion plates for such magazines as, La Gazette du bon ton, founded by Vogel in 1912, and published them periodically till 1925, excluding the years of the Great War.

Period between WWI and WWII

The time span between the great wars is believed to be the Golden Age of French fashion by most of the experts of the industry. It was an age of swift transformation, to better put, the reformation. As the age witnessed carriages replacing cars, monarchies dethroned, and ‘haute couture’ got new customers in the guise of movie personae, American  heiresses and women of elite or industrialist class!

History of Architecture

The word “Architecture” is derived from the Latin “atchitectura” transformed from the Greek “arkhitekton” with literal meaning “chief builder”. By definition ‘Architecture’ is the art of designing buildings and other geometrical shapes in a scientific matter.

Exploring origins:

The art of architecture initially originated as a product of dynamics between needs and means. With the development of aggrandizement and vivacity in human cultures, art and knowledge began to be organized initially through oral and later written procedures. Resultantly, architecture progressively transformed into an art.

Architects

Construction during Medieval times

The Medieval construction began in the 7th century, evolving from a homogeneity of architectural forms of ancient Middle East and of Byzantium vis-à-vis developing features to cater for the local and religious needs of the society. Instance can be had all over the Middle East, North Africa and Spain and were casting a considerable stylist impact over European architecture during the medieval times.

Architecture during Renaissance

During Renaissance period, emphasis was being imparted on human as an individual and it had shifted its course from the religion, and this way a new chapter of development and progress opened. Constructions were related to certain architects, Brunelieschi, Alberti, Michelangelo, Palladio, as the era of the “humanism” had taken effect.

Still there was no line of distinction between an artist and an architect or between any two related professions. The titles were mostly according to religious preferences. By this time, it was yet practicable for any artist to form a connection for the scope of dimensional measurements involved was within the range of generalists.

Early phases of Modernism and Industrial Age

Increasing fed-ups with general routine at the onset of the 20th c. gave a fillip to different new directions and shades of thought that were precursory to some modern arrangements in Architecture. Significant once included Dentscher Werkbund, developed in 1907 to generate best quality machine made products. The emergence of the design industry as a profession is believed to have taken place during this time.

Current Trends in Architecture

A few minds of the profession of architectural designs were able to respond to Modernism and then Postmodernism by hinting at the core where the burning point of the problem lied. They realized that architecture had been a subjective philosophy or aesthetic drive sought by professionals; it should instead consider day-to-day requirements of individuals and employ technology and artifice to create a livable atmosphere.

History of Crime

The history of crime and criminology has been proper maintained from 14th century. Since that time onward a number of theories were propounded with divergent views of their exponents who had tried to reconsider crime according to their belief and ideas, personal knowledge and life experiences. We are used to contend that all their propositions are model perceptions and a way of thinking for us.

Interestingly enough, these theories are not genuine or absolute because they are inspired by differently visualized musings of their thinker concerned. The setbacks in these theories are owing to their thinkers’ lack of experience, practical evaluation, inapt or inadequate observation and comprehension.

Crime Scene

Not only that, the scientific theories are sometimes skeptical of their true status as “scientific” because they are all without any EMPERICAL and METHODOLOGICAL procedure! Though most of them have been recorded on the premise of different opinions — social, ecological, economic and psychological. But there isn’t any significant one that could come up with a definite a root cause of the crime.

Of all the criminals, with the exception of those lunatics, none of the criminal has ever been found deficient in any aspect of intellect. A number of theories, today, are based on statistical accounts / records, i.e. we can say that they operate in a certain frame of reference marked with a particular space and time. Such an arrangement would grudgingly account for credible information about the TRUE depiction of crime or criminal behavior.

Finally, the fact remains that despite of incongruities in the time of observations and the conceiving of theories of hypotheses, our impression has been tinged with “ideationalism” from 14th century all the way through the advent of the 20th century. These propositions have been inspired by religious-cultural idea of ORIGINAL SIN. However, in the start of the 20th century this idea was reshaped and presented in terms of “sensate cultural mentality”.

Most of the criminals in recent times have admitted that they committed crime in pursuit of their ‘sensate value orientation’ mentality focusing on the same all-time stimuli, viz. wealth, women, wine, etc. Another vivid example that can be put forth in support of the evidence is the usual attitude and conduct of the criminal in routine, specifically in the case of white collar criminals involved in any range of fraudulent business, perhaps more specifically the “swindlers”.

Entrenched at the core of each one of these activities is the seed of crime analysis, i.e. a seed so fundamental that it took ten thousand years from the early beginning of civilization through the 1960s, for the task to be proper institutionalized. So that it could develop police agencies than in communities or press rooms or universities, for example now is a function of two phenomena: ‘proximity to required information, and proximity to another profession, i.e. police who has the best resource and time to work out patterns and trends.

History of Names

The term ‘name’ is a transformation of the Old English ‘nama’, quite similiar to old high German ‘namo’ and perhaps resembling to Proto Indo-European language ‘nomn’.

A name designates a noun, usually employed to identify a thing unique from others. Names can represent a category or class of different entities or a single such entity, either distinctly or in a given context. A name of a person represents a particular distinct and distinguishable individual. It may or may not entail a middle name.

Arthurian

The name of a particular thing or item is at times referred to as proper name – despite of the fact that the term in question has an abstract or concrete idea related to it – and falls in the category of a proper noun. Sometimes there are nouns that can be roughly called ‘names’ – a term used to refer to them in ancient times is ‘general names’ but now this term is obsolete in grammar. For example, the English frequently refer to Shakespeare as “The Bard” – language writer.

Mythological History of Naming

In mythology of naming during the Arthurian era, the code of respect and gallantry observed by knights was that a knight who had lost a fight must disclose his name to the victor. It was regarded a violation of decorum to disclose ones name before the combat started.

A recurrent traditional theme was that a battered knight would, after disclosing his name, ask the victor’s name. Now, if the victor turned out to be considerably strong and popular knight, such as, for example, one of Arthur’s knight, the loser didn’t have to much worry about face-saving, for he had lost at the hand of a much more worthy opponent – as though he was pre-destined to be defeated. But if the victor turned out to be an unfamiliar or of strength commensurate with the loser, his defeat meant a great deal of humiliation and disgrace.

In this sense, it was considered highly objectionable and against the standard code of practice required by the creed of knighthood if a knight was found reluctant to having disclosed his name after the duel in either case. Very rarely it so happened that the victor could not simply tell his name for he knew not! Such was the case with Lancelot and Percival during their earlier compaigns.This inability to reveal once name even after victory some times created a great confusion and embarrassment in the loser who would assume the victor was intentionally doing this to further insult him.

Sir Gawain was, however, a major exception to the norm, who, considering himself greatest of his uncle, Arthur’s knights, would find no hesitation in disclosing his name for he believed he was the greatest. Therefore, right in the beginning of a duel he would pronounce his name as it didn’t tarnish his reputation in that he had violated the norm established in every other case – a kind of regimental or divine right of monarchs.

History of Politics

Political history is the description and analysis of significant political occasions, movements, thoughts, and leaders. Typically it is developed around the nation states. It is distinguished from but relevant to other areas of history such as economic history, social history, and military history.

Usually, political history discusses events pertaining to nation-states and the political process in particular. As per Hegelian doctrine, Political History ‘is a perception of the state with a guiding force beyond the material benefits of its subjects: it meant that the state was the root factor of historical change’.  This differs with one, for example, social history, which predominantly discusses the events and lifestyles of common folks, or people’s history, that is historical account from the view point of a lay person.

Politics

Different views of political history

In the 19th century, the pioneering work on ‘scientific’ political history was composed by Leopold von Ranke in Germany. The methodologies he laid down greatly influenced the way historians critically scrutinize sources. A significant aspect of political history is enunciated by the study of ideology as a prerequisite for historical change. A writer went to the extent of commenting: ‘political history in its entirety cannot work in the absence of the study of ideological disparities and their entailment.’

A study of political history typically centers on a single nation and its political change and aggrandizement. A few historians highlight the ever increasing drift toward confined specialization in political history over the course of recent decades: ‘wherein a college professor in the 1940s resorted to identify himself as a “historian”, by the 1950s “American historian” was the designation.’

From 1970s and onward, new movements tended to question conventional theories to political history. The emergence of social history and woman’s history moved the emphasis away from focusing on leaders and national resolutions; perhaps more towards the space occasioned by common nationals; ‘…since the 1970s “the new social history” came to replace the older style. Emphasis drifted to a wider medium of life, including such issues as the neo-urbanization, ethnicity, the media, public health, and poverty.”

Political history is, therefore, sometimes considered as more ‘traditional’ type of history, contrasting with so called more up-to-date approaches of other areas of history.

Political history of the world

The political world history is the history of the different political bodies formed by the Human race over the course of their existence on Earth and on how these states demarcate their borders. The history of political thinking traces its origins in antiquity. Political history or the history of political thinking during human existence entails Medieval period and the Renaissance.

The Age of Enlightenment witnessed political institutions swelling from fundamental systems of monarchy and self-governance to the diverse democratic and communist systems that flourished in present Industrialied and the Modernized Era, in contrast, political systems have expanded from diffused frontier-type boundaries, to the fixed boundaries existing as of today.

The History of World

The history of the world refers to the recorded memoirs and reminiscence of the interaction of Homo Sapiens. The oldest records begin with the invention, at different places of earth at their own, of writing that developed the basis for permanence of marks precisely transferring records that were later used for further sharing and growth of knowledge.

One of such period was the coming of Agriculture Revolution. During the period between 8500 and 7000 BC in the Fertile Crescent, a territory in the Near East, including the Levant and Mesopotamia, people commenced a properly planned husbandry of plants and animals to promote agriculture. The trend also reached the nearby areas, and also further spread and evolved at its own till such time when most of the human beings adopted sedentary mode of life.

Human Evolution

The farmers also held permanent in-habitations encircling the water source. Such settlements merged into one another some time resulting in huge conglomeration of population, in synchronization with the invention of more efficient means of transportation.

The privileged measure of security and increased agricultural production achieved through extensive farming enabled these sporadic settlements to grow in size. An excess of food promoted division of labor — the burgeoning of leisurely upper class and the emergence of cities and hence of the whole fabric of civilization.

The increasing complication and detail of human societies required a system of accountability. This collective realization helped evolve the system of writing during the Bronze Age. Other occasions of independent evolution of writing the different places on earth made a number of regions to cement their claim of having pioneered the writing and thus of being epicenters of civilization.

Civilizations evolved more vigorously on the banks of rivers. Before 3000 BC, they had been flourishing in the Middle East’s Mesopotamia — a territory between the Euphrates and the Tigris, on the bank of the river Nile, along the Indus river valley and across the great rivers of China.

The time line of the Old World is usually divided into Antiquity: up to about 6th century; the Middle Ages: from 6th through 15th century; the Early Modern Period (including the Renaissance period in Europe): from 16th century to the year 1750; the Modern Period (including Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution): from 1750 to date.

The collapse of Roman Empire in Europe by 476 CE is usually considered marks the end of Antiquity and the commencement of the Middle Ages. A millenium later, by the 15th century, Gutenberg’s invention of printing using movable type gave a boost to mass communication, thereby contributing to formally end the Middle Ages. The Modern times, viz. European Renaissance and Scientific Revolution start at this point. In the 18th century, the juxtaposition of vast knowledge of technology, particularly in Europe, took momentum resulting in the Industrial Revolution.

About a quarter millennium later, the multiple growth of knowledge and technology coupled with dynamic economics and potential devastation caused by the great wars has now resulted in the creation of both opportunities and concerns that pose a future challenge to the globalized human race that now resides the planet earth!

History of Women

By history of women we mean the history of female human beings in general. Women constitute nearly half our lineage members, and a number of us will be much fond of tracing our female bloodline as the male ancestry. When a woman is married into a family she puts off her surname and comes up with a fresh set of ancestors with her — every offshoot offering intriguing possibilities for further probing.

Traces to locate female ancestors can often be had in accounts pertaining to their spouses, male offspring or siblings. The womenfolk are witnesses to important interfamily ceremonies such as a marriage or birthday, and as such their names can be traced out on certain legal documents. A mother’s name will be endorsed on a birth certificate. Search for a kid in your family tree with an odd middle name; it could be his or her mother’s virgin name.

Woman

Marriage accounts are the best way to hint at the maiden names of the bride and those of her parents. A church would often enlist mother’s virgin name in its baptismal records. Moreover, the information pertaining to a housewife could be had from records of census, in addition to other accounts such as their ages and occupations.

Similarly, people have been tracing maid and her mother’s names from the death records. Other useful sources of locating the background of a woman are will and probate records; this is because their parents / forefathers would normally name each member of their children in their will when they decided their property.

Likewise, when we talk about the social history of the women, their struggle for demanding certain measures of human and social rights applied to their gender becomes imperative. Starting from the epoch-making moments in participation in Abolition movements women developed a rising concern against male hegemony and exploitation. From the point of Timeline onward they had been active in seeking international recognition for equality.

Another significant development that came to the forefront was movement for Feminism. The history of Feminism traces its root as far back as 18th century.

With the advent of Reformation in 19th century further strengthened these movements. The earliest accounts on the ‘woman cause’ have questioned the marginalized role of women in social walks without saying that either gender was at a disadvantage!

In the United Kingdom, the Feminist movement started in the 1800s and remains in effect even to-date. In the earlier part of the 20th century, Beauvoir presented a detailed analysis of oppression on women. Between late 1960s and early 1970s, women movements in the United States considerably uplifted the general plight of the women in the Europe and Americas.