Aston Martin, a British-based automaker is known for manufacturing luxury sports car. The company was founded in 1913 in Gaydon, Warwickshire, England by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. It’s been nine decades and since then the company has brought together three vital components in its every single vehicle – Power, Beauty and Soul.
Over its prolonged history, the company has gone through several different phases. It has seen some really good times as well as some bad phases. However, Aston Martin has managed to stand out through thick and thin due to its strong policies and dedicated approach towards introducing a class in its vehicles.
The company seems to be very passionate about its cars. It claims that all of its sports cars will go on to be hand-built, but without any compromise on using high technology engineering to make them suitable for the current requirements of the customers.
Although, the company was founded almost nine decades ago, the principles and goals set by the founders at that time seem to be very relevant to the current trends. The class of Aston Martin vehicles is certainly worth praising. We hope the company will continue to bring new innovation and modern engineering to its long line of vehicles.
You might want to check out more on Aston Martin’s History.
About one third of earth used to be ice one time. The last known vestiges of the ice age have been traced fame 10,000 yrs ago. By the time the exterior of earth started getting warmer, ice began to melt. The legacy of the last ice age includes the glaciers’ layers of ice covering valleys and rivers. Since ice had been covering most part of the earth, the scientists designate that period as the “ice age”.
Ice went on melting and freezing again and again for millions of years. It was before 10,000 years ago that the earth began to gain some temperature. The melting sheets of ice either ushered into lakes or left behind broad valleys having a mixture of soil and rock. The stocks of ice that remained unchanged were those in the high cliffs. The present day glaciers are indeed remains of the ice age.
Aggasiz was the first scientist who ventured out to study the traces of the ice age. When Aggasiz coined the term ‘erratic’ for boulders and for the first time explained that the boulders are glacier remains — people raised buzz that he was crazy!
Human Habitat during the Ice Age
Over the stretch of ice age, humans used to hunt their food. When an animal, such as mammoth fell prey, men would kill it. It would be subsequently dismembered — cut into pieces comprising of big chunks to be kept in their caves. The whole family would participate in the cooking process from hunting to final cooking. These people are speculated to have existed some 35,000 years before.
European countries like France, Britain, Spain and Germany were experiencing frost round the year during ice age. Sheets of ice at Poles had been much cold than they are today. No one knows how, why or what caused the ice age to start and then why did it stop after 25,000 years.
All we can surmise is the fact that it was there and is waning very slowly. This explains why the people living in that age couldn’t realize the age was becoming colder and colder for them and as such they were turning to be ice-age hunters. Most of them would populate in western, central zones of Europe.
The lands were shaped quite differently because of this overwhelming mass of ice. The land seemed ‘bare’ for it had been too cold to let beech and oak trees to grow. However, sporadic growth of fir trees might be there. No grassy growths, just little shrubs and moss could have been seen in North America, Europe and Asia; Arctic Plain can still be witness there!
The impact of English dressing in America, the industrial boom, and the influence fashion witnessed on English and American civilization has been recorded over the course of century in terms of different literary devices.
Fashion in 19th century transatlantic literature has broadcasted the significance and development of fashion British author Charles dickens cites references regarding the importance of the female seamstress and the part she contributed in English society, and ideals covering femininity in one of his novels, Little Dorrit (Famine 55).
American Notes of Dickens still exhibit an obsession with both the American and English fashion, as he opined that the attire of American women. In Th Dark City, Leander Richardson holds a comparison between fashion trends in Boston and New York with those prevailed in London. He starizes the trends in American women to copy their British counterparts. All this dynamism of fashion gives shape to fashion in his works as a ‘transatlantic industrial market.
Godey’s Lady’s Book, the American Magazine, editor being Sara Joshua Hale links 19th century fashion as a manifestation of moral based values of the time. Her appreciation of Queen Victoria’s style of dress in 1968 unraveled her approach toward dressing of women exhibiting the English morality.
Early 20th Century
Over the course of early 20th century, all high class fashion practically appeared in Paris and to some extent in London as well. Fashion magazines published in other countries have been sending editors to the Paris fashion shows. Departmental stores had been sending buyers to the Paris shows, where they would buy garments to copy design or would readily plagiarize idea, or some times the whole design scheme.
Both kind of garments — measure-to-measure salons and ready-to-wear departments offered up-to-date trends of Paris — tailored to the expectations of stores pertaining to different lifestyles and target client’s pocket books.
With the advent of the 20th century fashion magazines began to depict photographs and assumed even more momentum than in the past. The metropolitan life all over the world much demanded these fine pieces of brochures as they would profoundly govern popular taste. Demonstrators, such as, Georges Lepape, Paul Iribe, George Barbier and Erte developed exotic fashion plates for such magazines as, La Gazette du bon ton, founded by Vogel in 1912, and published them periodically till 1925, excluding the years of the Great War.
Period between WWI and WWII
The time span between the great wars is believed to be the Golden Age of French fashion by most of the experts of the industry. It was an age of swift transformation, to better put, the reformation. As the age witnessed carriages replacing cars, monarchies dethroned, and ‘haute couture’ got new customers in the guise of movie personae, American heiresses and women of elite or industrialist class!
The word “Architecture” is derived from the Latin “atchitectura” transformed from the Greek “arkhitekton” with literal meaning “chief builder”. By definition ‘Architecture’ is the art of designing buildings and other geometrical shapes in a scientific matter.
The art of architecture initially originated as a product of dynamics between needs and means. With the development of aggrandizement and vivacity in human cultures, art and knowledge began to be organized initially through oral and later written procedures. Resultantly, architecture progressively transformed into an art.
Construction during Medieval times
The Medieval construction began in the 7th century, evolving from a homogeneity of architectural forms of ancient Middle East and of Byzantium vis-à-vis developing features to cater for the local and religious needs of the society. Instance can be had all over the Middle East, North Africa and Spain and were casting a considerable stylist impact over European architecture during the medieval times.
Architecture during Renaissance
During Renaissance period, emphasis was being imparted on human as an individual and it had shifted its course from the religion, and this way a new chapter of development and progress opened. Constructions were related to certain architects, Brunelieschi, Alberti, Michelangelo, Palladio, as the era of the “humanism” had taken effect.
Still there was no line of distinction between an artist and an architect or between any two related professions. The titles were mostly according to religious preferences. By this time, it was yet practicable for any artist to form a connection for the scope of dimensional measurements involved was within the range of generalists.
Early phases of Modernism and Industrial Age
Increasing fed-ups with general routine at the onset of the 20th c. gave a fillip to different new directions and shades of thought that were precursory to some modern arrangements in Architecture. Significant once included Dentscher Werkbund, developed in 1907 to generate best quality machine made products. The emergence of the design industry as a profession is believed to have taken place during this time.
Current Trends in Architecture
A few minds of the profession of architectural designs were able to respond to Modernism and then Postmodernism by hinting at the core where the burning point of the problem lied. They realized that architecture had been a subjective philosophy or aesthetic drive sought by professionals; it should instead consider day-to-day requirements of individuals and employ technology and artifice to create a livable atmosphere.
The history of Printing started, and as such assumed international exposure, to pursue efficient and economic means of printing multiple copies of text, fabrics and graphics. Printing processes enhanced communications, and contributed a great deal to the evolution of commerce, law and culture.
It is a technique to print text or graphic designs that had long been in fashion across East Asia. The art first appeared in China during antiquity as a way of printing textiles and subsequently the paper. As art of cloth printing, the ancient examples that exist so long in China date back to the 4th century.
Ukiyo-e has been the best quality of all known type of Japanese woodblock art printing. The European uses of the technique on paper can be explained by the then prevailed art terminology, “woodcut”, other than the block-books that were printed in the 15th century.
In Egypt, India and Europe, however, the cloth-printing definitely was preceded by papyrus printing — a form of medium employed for printing very close to paper. Same prevailed in China. The process typically remains the same throughout the course of history to-date; in Europe specific design impression of printing had often been taken on silk until approached the 17th century.
Exploring the Art of Printing in the Islamic World
Tarsh, the Arabic name of Block printing was flourishing in Egypt and Arabia during the 9-10th centuries — predominantly for prayers and amulets. There is a little clue to propose that the printing blocks had been synthesized from a range of different materials other than wood; these included metals, viz. lead, tin and cast iron in addition to stone, glass, clay, etc. nevertheless, the techniques used have been incredible as they seem to have cast a little impact outside the Muslim domains.
No doubt Europe had been emulating the wood-block based techniques of printing from the Muslim world, in the beginning for fabric, the art of metal block printing remained largely absent in Europe. However, later on block printing was abandoned by the Islamic Central Asia subsequent to the movable type of printing had been adopted from China.
Printing in Europe
Block printing was first introduced to Christian Europe as a way of printing over cloth, where it had been a known practice by 1300. Graphic designs printed on cloth for religious ends used to be very large and vivid. However, with the convenient availability of paper about 1400, the medium of printing drastically shifted to miniature woodcut images and playing cards to be printed on hard paper. Such prints were being executed in huge numbers from round about 1425 onwards.
By the middle of the century, woodcut books, clock-books with both text and graphics, were normally etched in the same block, evolved as a cost efficient substitute for books and manuscripts to be printed with movable type. All these were brief but densely ornate works, mostly the best-sellers of their time, that have been appearing and reappearing in a number of different block-book version — the Ars moriendi and the Biblia Pauperum being the conspicuous examples.
The terms “Portugal” emanates from the Roman “Portus Cale”. “Cale” had been an ancient population settled at the delta of the Douro River that fell into the Atlantic in the north of what is now Portugal. About 200 BC, the romans overtoook the Iberian Peninsula from the Carthaginians in the 2nd Punic War, and during the process captured Cale and gave it the new title “Portus Cale” meaning Port of Cale.
In the Middle Ages, the territory in the vicinity of Portus Cale was famously proclaimed as Portucale by the Suevi and visigoths. The name “Portucale” eventually turned into “Portugale” in the period between 7th and 8th centuries, but during the 9th century, that the term was used frequently to allude to the land between rivers Douro and Minho; the Minho flowed along the northern border between Portugal and Spain. The 11th and 12th witnessed “Portugale” transforming into “Portugal”.
The history of Portugal, as an European and an Atlantic nation, traces its known origins from the Early Middle Ages during the 15th and 16th centuries, when it rose to the status of the world power while the Age of Discovery was going on. The expansionistic expeditions of Portugese resulted in vast proportion wielding of empire such as territories in South America, Africa, Asia and Australasia.
During next couple of centuries, Portugal progressively lost a lot of its resource and prestige as the English, Dutch and French had taken an ever increasing share in slave and spice trade —the very economic dependency of the empire. The intruders were able to accomplish all this by surrounding and plundering vastly scattered Portugese trading post, and lands ransacking the territory of their economic wealth to ever dream of overseas world power.
Foreshadowing of strategic downfall started as after two fierce battles — the Battle of Alcacer Quibir held in Morocco in 1578 and Spain’s before time attempt to capture English in 1588 — Portugese at that time was in active union with Spain and shared its part of ships in the Spanish invasion fleet. Further weakening followed by the ruination of a greater part of its capital city in a 1755 earthquake, usurpation over its lands during Napoleonic wars and the cessation of the biggest colony — Brazil in 1822.
By mid 19th century through the late 1950s, about two million Portugese had left to settle in Brazil and the United States. In 1910, there had been a revolution that dethrowned the monarchical rule. Nevertheless, the republic formed subsequently showed inability to sort out national issues. Beside widespread corruption, despotism of church authority, and an approximate bankruptcy of the state, an armed coup, 1926, ushered into a dictatorial regime that was overtaken by yet another coup in 1974.
The newly formed government introduced large scale political reforms and allowed autonomy to all of Portugal’s colonies in Africa around 1975. Portugal is one of the leading member of the NATO, OECD and EFTA. Portugal joined EU in 1986.