Aston Martin, a British-based automaker is known for manufacturing luxury sports car. The company was founded in 1913 in Gaydon, Warwickshire, England by Lionel Martin and Robert Bamford. It’s been nine decades and since then the company has brought together three vital components in its every single vehicle – Power, Beauty and Soul.
Over its prolonged history, the company has gone through several different phases. It has seen some really good times as well as some bad phases. However, Aston Martin has managed to stand out through thick and thin due to its strong policies and dedicated approach towards introducing a class in its vehicles.
The company seems to be very passionate about its cars. It claims that all of its sports cars will go on to be hand-built, but without any compromise on using high technology engineering to make them suitable for the current requirements of the customers.
Although, the company was founded almost nine decades ago, the principles and goals set by the founders at that time seem to be very relevant to the current trends. The class of Aston Martin vehicles is certainly worth praising. We hope the company will continue to bring new innovation and modern engineering to its long line of vehicles.
You might want to check out more on Aston Martin’s History.
In between Florida and Venezuela, there are a number of islands. The islands are located nearby to Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and Cuba. Puerto Rico, Hispaniola and Cuba are the three largest islands located in the Caribbean.
Since the 2000 B.C., mankind has started to conduct explorations on these island chains. The Ciboney are the first to discover the group of islands. Ciboney is a term given by the archaeologists to the hunter gatherers who used to live on the islands.
During the Christian era, the Arawak had moved to the islands. When they arrive at the islands, they force the Ciboney to leave. By 1000 A.D., the Caribs came and made the Arawak to leave.
The Arawak has a fiercer temper than the Caribs. They are violent and cruel in carrying out punishment on their enemies. It is a custom to marry the women and eat the men in the Arawak culture. The Arawak refers to the Caribs people as canibas.
When the Spaniards discovered the islands, they are shocked to discover the islands is occupied by the Canibas who are inclined to eat human flesh. They spread the news about the Canibas in Europe. Soon, everyone is calling the Arawak as the cannibal.
In 1492, Columbus sailed to the island of Bahamas and Greater Antilles. Columbus found that the Arawak live in the northern islands. He also discovered that the islands in the south are occupies by the Caribs.
The exact date that Columbus arrived on the island is 12th October 1492. Upon their arrival, they plant a flag that belongs to Spain in the ground. By planting the flag, they are acknowledging that the island is a property to Ferdinand and Isabella. The island is named as San Salvador by Columbus. San Salvador means Jesus the Savior in Spanish. Archaeologists do not know on which of the island that Columbus landed on. However, they do know that Columbus and his group arrive at one of the islands in the Bahamas.
Columbus and his crew are not the first people from Europe to arrive at America. However, they are the first to arrive and stuck their flags in the ground. Columbus felt that he had arrived at the East Indies. The inhabitants of the island warmly welcome Columbus and his men. Columbus called the native people as Indians. Later, the Europeans call the region as the West Indies.
After a few days, Columbus and his men explore more islands. They give each of the island they explore a unique Spanish name. In November, Columbus came across the most important land in his expedition. He came across a large island called Cuba. Columbus is convinced that the large island is Cipango. Marco Polo describes this island as an extraordinary place that is located in the eastern Asia. Many readers thought Marco Polo is referring the island as Japan.
Columbus explored another large island located to Cuba. He named the island after his home country, Espanola. Espaniola is also known as Hispaniola. While they sailed to the shores, the bottom of the ship lodged in the ground of the sea shore and lay waste. Since the ship is wrecked, the men have no choice but to stay in the island. Forty men from Columbus crew stayed on the island and survived on the remaining food for a year. In the meantime, Columbus returned to Spain and reported his discoveries to the queen.
On 15th March, Columbus reached Palos. The Pinta also reaches Palos on the 15th March. Once Columbus arrived at Palos, he went to Barcelona to meet with the king in the court of Ferdinand and Islabella. He showed the royal monarchs a few captives taken from the Bahamas. He also presented some gold to them.
During the peak of his carrier, Columbus takes a sea voyage to the west after his meeting with Ferdinand and Isabella. Columbus wants to establish small colonies of people in these places. He took seventeen ships with him. The seventeen ships were occupied by one thousand and five hundred people. After leaving Cadiz, he came across Guadalupe and Puerto Rico. When they arrived in Hispaniola, they discovered that the forty crew men on the islands are already killed by the natives.
The news about the death of the forty crew men causes dissatisfaction among the Spanish settler who is about to move into the New World.
In 1496, Columbus made a return trip to face his rivals at the court. He managed to overcome the critics and sailed to the west in 1498. The king gave Columbus a powerful position of authority in the third voyage. Due to some problems, Ferdinand and Isabella dispatched a governor to the island. The governor seizes Columbus and sent him back to Spain in chains.
Ferdinand and Isabella welcomed Columbus in the court pathetically. Despite that, Columbus is constantly rewarded for his achievements. Columbus was not allowed to visit the colonies on the islands. His negotiation with the king and queen lead him to a new expedition in the west. The purpose of the expedition is to find new sea passage in the west. The expedition is the fourth voyage of Columbus.
Columbus left the island on May 1502. During the journey, he injured his leg and had to sailed back home to Spain. He arrived at Spain in November 1504. Columbus had been spending his time in the New World since 1492 because he believes he had discovered a new land. Within a few years, the new world is being linked to Europe.
Fortified military posts were setup in Puerto Rico, Jamaica and Cuba. The establishment of the fortified military posts causes the islands to come under the dominion of the Spanish. The three islands are the springboard for the Spanish armed forces to conquer Mexico and Central America.
In the 16th century, pirates from England conquered the rich Spanish fleets. The islands remained to be the Spanish preserve. However, there are too many islands for the Spanish to control. In the 1600 A.D, people from England and France came to live on the outside boundary of the islands.
The English came to discover the island in the West Atlantic by an accident. In 1609, an English vessel was caught in a ship wrecked. The crew found safety aboard the island of Bermuda. As soon as they discovered the island, a ship that carried sixty colonists was dispatched.
After 30 years, religion tensions cause a group of people to find another place to settle. In 1648, the English live in the islands in Bahamas on the northern Caribbean. The islands are the same ones that Columbus discovered in 1492. After that, the Spanish took 40,000 Arawak Indians in captivity to work as miner in Hispaniola.
The Spanish often raid the eastern islands on Caribbean to find slaves to work for them. The British established small colonies in St. Kitts in 1623. They formed settlements in Barbados in 1627. In 1636, they established settlements in Antigua, Nevis and Montserrat. The French established settlements in St. Kitts in 1627. In 1632, the French occupied Dominica. In 1635, they conquered Martinique and Guadeloupe.
By the 17th century, most of the islands that once belonged to Spain were conquered by Britain and France. The English vessel arrived and conquered Jamaica in 1655. The France West India Company conquered the western region of Hispaniola in 1664. Hispaniola is the modern day Haiti.
The Spanish lost several of their Caribbean territories to the European forces. Jamaica was captured by Britain in 1655. The ownership of Trinidad was transferred to the British in 1802. Most of the islands that belonged to the Spanish are gaining their independence in the 1820s. The local residents started to consider having a self government. They don’t like to abide under the rules of a foreign government. During the liberal period, the state of Cuba and Puerto Rico had joined forces to rebel against the government. They want to unite together into one government. However, the Spain declared a constitution that Cuba and Puerto Rico are to not have connection with the Cortes. Instead, Cube and Puerto Rico must be governed by special laws.
The slave emancipation have a great impact on Puerto Rico and Cuba. There was an upriot in Puerto Ricon in 1868. During the Ten Years’ War of 1868-78, more than 200,000 slaves died. The Ten Years’ War started as soon as Carlos Manuel de Céspedes declares independence of Cuba. The Spanish forces put a lot of pressure on the rioters. The United States was concerned with the terrible situation of the riot in Cuba so they begun to intervene in the matter. On February 1898, the United States battleship Maine sunk at Havana harbor. The explosion of the battleship causes the death of 260 persons. The United States uses it as an excuse to claim the independence of Cuba. If Spanish will not surrender Cuba, the United States will declare war against it. On the 1st May, the American troop enters Manila to attack the Spanish ships. The American troop also sunk the Spanish ship located near the shores of Cuba. Later, the Spanish surrendered its forces to the United States.
The Spanish transferred the ownership of Puerto Rico, Philippines and Guam to the United States through the 1898 treaty. Cuba surrendered itself to the United States because its residents put their trust on them.
More than five hundred years ago, a sea captain was commanded by the Spanish’s king to find new land. The mission of the sea captain is to conquer the land or claim it. During his voyage, he comes across an island. He named the island St. Martin. The sea captain is Saint Maarten or Saint Martin is a Spanish name for the founder of the island. The name of the founder of the island is St. Martin of Tours. He found the island on the 11th November 1493. It is not known whether Columbus discovered this island. The island’s name was pronounced in the same way as the English pronounce it. St. Martin lived between 330 – 397. He was a bishop in Gaul. He is also the head of the monastery in Gaul. He is one of the most important saints who live in the western Europe. He is one of the figures who is not martyr by the pagan and yet called saints by the public.
When Columbus set sail in the sea, the island of St. Martin was already colonized by the Arawak and Caribbean Indians. The Arawaks were being dominated by the fiercer Caribbean Indians. The Caribbeans Indians came from the South America. They arrive at the St. Martin island a short period before the Spanish came. The Caibbeans Indians is also called canibal. Later, the word canibal was evolved into the English word cannibal, which means indigenous people who eat human flesh as food. The Arawak people are rich in their own cultures. They cultivate the land to earn a living. Besides, they make pottery. The families of the Arawak have leaders called Chieftan. According to the Arawak people, the chieftan receive the power from their deity called Zemis.
The Caribbean Indian men are fierce in warfare. When they first arrived at the island, they saw the Arawak people were already settled there. To claim the land as their own, they force the Arawak people to move northward. During the war, many Arawak people are killed by the Caribbean Indian. The Caribbean Indian cooked the Arawak men and eat them for their meals. They married the Arawak women and have children by them. The feelings of the Arawak women are not recorded. No scientists have found any evidence regarding whether the Arawak women fight back against the Caribbean Indian.
One day, the Spanish vessels arrived at St. Martin Island. They conquered the island by attacking the Indians who settled there. In 1550, some Arawak people live in Cuba and Trinidad. The settlements of the Carib Indians are not destroyed until the mid 1600s. During the mid 1600s, the settlements of the Carib Indians are being destroyed by the French, English and Dutch people. The Dutch people extract salt from the pond water in 1620.
The Spanish troops reconquered the island in 1633. After a year, a fort was constructed at Pointe Blanche by the Spaniards. The Spaniards carry slaves from Africa to the St. Martin in the 17th century. However, most numbers of slaves were being brought into the island during the 18th century. The slaves were brought to the St. Martin Island to work on the sugar plantations. During the early 19th century, it becomes illegal to use the African as slaves. Despite that, the culture of slavery was not stopped. The English people use the Chinese and East Indians as slaves for the sugar plantations in St. Martin Island. Therefore, the island contains a mixture of American Indian and Asian people. The St. Martin Island is rich with the West Indian culture. In fact, the island has the richest West Indian culture in the world.
During the mid 16th century, many pirated eyed on the shipping cargo. They wanted to attack the ship because of the Mexican silver in the cargo. The Spaniards were not able to prevent the pirates from attacking the ship. Some of the popular English buccaneers include Sir John Hawkins, Sir Francis Drake and Sir Henry Morgan. During those days, the Sea Beggers called Geuzen are active in raiding ship. The colonists face obstacles in developing a new navy because there are thousands of privateer in the United States. Privateering was somewhat abolished after the Declaration of Paris took placeon 1856. Privateering is completely abolished by the 20th century during the Seventh Hague Convention. Many people claimed there is a treasure chest on the island. However, no one had found it up to this day. Bucanners is a term derived from the French word called boucan. The French privateers used to grill the meat. The grilled meat is called boucans.
Privateering is quite common because several countries fought for the Caribbean. Some of the countries who are fighting for the Caribbean include England, Spain, Portugal and Denmark. The Netherland and France are also fighting for the dominion of the islands in the Caribbean. Dutch had conquered several islands in the Caribbean in between 1630 – 1649. The islands which are being conquere by the Dutch include Curacao, Saba, St. Eustatius and St. Martin. The Dutch use these islands as smuggling depots. The French formed its own navy in 1635. The French navy is called “Compagnie des Ilsles d’Amerique”. The French and the Spanish rule the St. Martin in 1649. For the last 15 years, the Spain had taken control of the St. Martin island. The Spanish domino over the St. Martin Island lasted for two years, which is from 1631 – 1633. The Spanish seized the St. Martin Island when the Dutch was ruling over it. St. Martin was dominated by the Dutch for seven times during the period between 1631 – 1816. The shortest period the Dutch control St. Martin is for 10 days. The longest period the Dutch rule St. Martin is 180 years plus.
The English had conquered St. Martin for 3 times. The first conquer conducted by the English people occur in 1718. The English dominion over St. Martin lasted for 10 months. The second conquer took place in 1801. The English manage to gain control over the island for 1 year and 8 months in between 1801 and 1802. The British conquered St. Martin again in 1810. The English dominion over the St. Martin Island lasted for 6 years from 1810 – 1816. The French people have conquered St. Martin Island for 4 times. The French colonization in St. Martin occurs in between 1672 – 1801. St. Martin was not dominated by any forces for thirteen years and three months. The period during which St. Martin Island was not controlled lasted from January 27, 1690 to April 10, 1703. The Dutch have been conquering St. Martin Island now and then since 1620s. Peter Stuyvesant broke his leg on the St. Martin Island when he was attempting to conquer the Portuguese soldier. The incident of Peter Stuyvesant losing his leg caused him to receive a nickname called Peg Leg. At that time, Peter anchored his ship at the bay in St. Martin Island. The bay which Peter anchored his ship is Cay Bay. He led his soldiers up to Little Bay Hill to charge a surprise attack against the Portuguese. The Portuguese soldiers were taking turns to guard the Fort Amsterdam. The Portuguese soldier won the battle. Peter accidentally broke his leg during the battle. Later, Peter traveled to America and rule as a governor over Nieuw Amsterdam. After many years, the British conquered Nieuw Amsterdam and called it New York.
In the early days, the main industry in St. Martin Island is the tobacco plantation. The slaves that work in the tobacco plantation are mostly European prisoners. The tobacco plantation did not proliferate in St. Martin Island. As a result, the small land lords are moving away to other places in the mid 1700s. At that time, sugar plantation was setup throughout the St. Martin Island. Sugar production causes the land owners to become very rich. Many slaves were imported to St. Martin Island to work on the sugar plantation. Soon, there are more slaves than the employed European workers. Due to the profitable sugar production industry, many countries are fighting for St. Martin Island. Many peace treaties that include the transfers of the Caribbean islands are being conducted.
The sugar plantation in the Caribbean slowly becomes less profitable because many countries also have sugar plantations. With the increasing supply of sugar, the price drops so that sugar becomes very cheap. The abolition of slavery in St. Martin Island on the 27th April 1848 causes the European forces to leave St. Martin Island alone. Nobody was at the island to work the sugar plantation. By the 19th century, the West Indian Islands become poverty stricken and neglected.
Later, airplanes were invented by the Wright Brothers. When the technology of airplane becomes more advanced, tourists started to visit the St. Martin Island. Two governments have help to make the people in St. Martin island settle in peace. Today, St. Martin Island has a vibrant tourism industry. Every year, St. Martin Island received thousands of visitors from around the world.
Trinidad and Tobago have different history even though they share the same government. Trinidad and Tobago have been conquered by different parties throughout the years. Trinidad and Tobago have been united for more than a century. The history of Trinidad and Tobago has a number of similarities.
Columbus came across the Trinidad Island during his sea voyage n 1498. As soon as he arrived at the island, he planted the flag on the ground to claim it as a property of Spain. At this period, many countries in Europe are looking for gold. They have sent out troops in sea voyages to find gold. Trinidad is not a land that is rich with gold. Due to this fact, the Spanish decided not to make settlement in that place. The Spanish is not the first people to arrive on the island.
The island of Trinidad used to be settled by the Carib Indian and Arawak people. The Carib and Arawak are Amerindian people. It is not sure whether the Carib dominate the Arawak people or the Arawak people dominate the Carib people. Carib people are fiercer than the Arawak people. Most of the populations on the island of Trinidad are the Arawak people. There is very little recorded evidences about the Carib and Arawak people because the Spanish capture them and make them work as slaves.
The Spanish took over Trinidad since three centuries ago. They did not send settlers to Trinidad immediately. Some of the officials suggested to the monarch that they should give the Amerindians a better treatment. Despite that, they enslave the people of Arawak. There were no plantations cultivated on the land until 1718. After 1718, cocoa plants were being planted on the island. The cocoa crops did not prosper and Trinidad’s economy was ruined.
The island of Trinidad has less than 800 inhabitants in 1772. With so little inhabitants, the Spanish planned to trick its people to settle on Trinidad. The Spanish government successfully recruits about three hundred Spanish settlers. When the settlement takes place, there are approximately 400 Amerindians. Later, several French people came to settle on the island. Spain offers a lot of benefits for the dark skin Catholic immigrants. Despite that, the government still has discrimination on the dark skin immigration. The white settlers are given twice as much land than the dark skin settlers. The white settlers that have brought in slaves are granted an extra land for per slave. The immigrants must submit themselves to the Spanish monarch.
Twenty five years after the first settlement, the populations of Trinidad have increase to over 16,000 people. Out of sixteen thousand people, two thousand of them are white Europeans and four thousand and five hundred people are Africans. The four thousand and five hundred people are not slaves but free Africans. The British conquered the island of Trinidad on 1797. Once the British subdued Trinidad, they held discussion on what to do with the free Africans and British settlers. The British put a ban on the importation of slaves because of the terrible social and political situation.
On one of Columbus’ voyage, he came across the island of Tobago. No one paid attention to Tobago until the 17th century. The Arawak and Carib Indians call the island Tobago. When Columbus arrived on the island, he called it Assumption. The British people came to conquer the island on 1626. After Britain had conquered Tobago, they establish the first settlers on the island. Soon, many countries in the Europe are fighting for the island.
The Spanish conquered the British government in 1636. After the Spanish conquered Tobago, they started to have fear that the people will join forces with the people on Trinidad. The Duchy of Courland was given authority to take control of the island in 1639. France and Holland fought for the ownership in Tobago. Latvia also send fighting vessel to Tobago to take over the island. Latvia conquered the island during the 1664. In order to conquer Tobago, France engaged in a battle with Netherlands. France won the battle over Netherlands in 1678. Courland relinquish from the war during 1690. Tobago was conquered by many European forces but none of them really settle down on the island.
During 1700s, there are a lot of wars between the major armed forces in the world. France and Britain reach a neutral agreement in 1749. However, the neutral agreement only takes effect for a short period. France joined forces with Spain to fight with Britain in 1956. British managed to overcome the forces of France and Spain and claimed Tobago as its territory.
In 1781, France engaged in a war with Britain to claim back Tobago. The population on Tobago increase to more than fifteen thousand after France took over Tobago. Out of the fifteen thousand residents, fourteen thousands of them are slaves. Starting from the latter part of the 1700s, there is no more fighting between the major forces. The ownership of Tobago was transferred to Britain from France during the 1803. After that, the British had control over Tobago until independence was given to them.
During the reign of Britain, Trinidad was given the status Crown Colony. Britain endow Trinidad the status because they of the high number of dark skin inhabitants on the island that own land. The dark skin people are not allowed to vote. They are completely banished from participating in the political activities. Since most of the white people are not British, no one raise objections about it.
In 1834, the British Emancipation granted Tobago the permission to set up its own government. The British Emancipation did not help to improve the economy of Tobago. In order to support the economy, Tobago was converted to a census-designated place. The workers are not paid a salary for their labors. However, the landowners will share the profits of the crops with the workers. Despite that, the new law did not help to increase the economy activity.
The 1834 British Emancipation has effect on Trinidad as well. Before the 1834 British Emancipation take place, imports of slaves are prohibited in Trinidad. Though there is not enough people to work in the plantations, all kinds of crops were grown in Trinidad. Some of the crops that are grown in Trinidad include sugar, cotton, and coffee. The slaves that are imported from China did not stay for a long time in Trinidad because the men are moved to the island without supports from their families. Though the British government banned the imports of slaves, many managed to smuggle the slaves into the island. Many Indian workers were smuggled to the island. The Indian and Chinese serve as indentured workers in between 1845 – 1917.
In 1833, Trinidad came under the dominion of Barbados. Trinidad was controlled by Barbados along with the neighboring countries including Grenada, and St. Vincent. Tobago did not want to surrender their rights to Britain. However, the dispute between Tobago and Britain are settled. In the later years, the British government united the island of Tobago and Trinidad.
The races and status of the people have plays an important role in impacting the history of the islands. During the 1897, the sugar plantations in the Caribbean islands failed. Due to the failing of the sugar plantations, the economy of the islands deteriorated.
In 1910, Trinidad’s economy was restored when someone discovered oil on the island. After the World War I, the peple of Trinidad receives rights to vote and be involved in the political system. The sugar plantations in Trinidad no longer exist. In 1929, the economy of Trinidad Island was completely supported by the oil production.
In 1937, the poverty stricken condition caused the people held strike against the government. In 1946, Trinidad has the first universal election. The People’s National Movement (PNM) organized a meeting in 1956 in Trinidad. Through the conference, many political and social agenda was put forward. The purpose of the People’s National Movement (PNM) is to improve the economy of Trinidad. People’s National Movement (PNM) also aimed to restore the social problems on the island. The president of the People’s National Movement (PNM) party is Eric Williams. Eric Williams became led the government in Trinidad for twenty years.
During the early years in 1970s, the society in Trinidad faces a lot of problems. Consequently, Trinidad went through the “February Revolution”. The February Revolution was participated by workers and students. Thousands of workers and students were creating uproar in the streets. Due to the February Revolution, Trinidad and Tobago was able to gain independence from the British government. The February Revolution last for 10 years. Trinidad and Tobago also have established economic relationship with overseas countries. The overseas countries which Trinidad and Tobago have agreement with include Cuba, China and Russia.
In 1976, the oil production in Trinidad and Tobago causes them to achieve independence status. Trinidad and Tobago achieve independence at the same time. Together, Trinidad and Tobago formed the Independent Republic. The United States is the largest economy partner with Trinidad and Tobago since 1977. When Prime Minister Williams passed away in 1981, Trinidad and Tobago were being taken over by a different political party. The political party that took over Trinidad and Tobago is called National Alliance for Reconstruction. Trinidad and Tobago were controlled by the National Alliance for Reconstruction in 1986.
In 1990, there is an upriot to change the government by force. Despite that, the upriot did not manage to overthrow the government. There are many discriminations between different ethnic on Trinidad and Tobago. Recently, the society in Trinidad and Tobago has settled peacefully.
About one third of earth used to be ice one time. The last known vestiges of the ice age have been traced fame 10,000 yrs ago. By the time the exterior of earth started getting warmer, ice began to melt. The legacy of the last ice age includes the glaciers’ layers of ice covering valleys and rivers. Since ice had been covering most part of the earth, the scientists designate that period as the “ice age”.
Ice went on melting and freezing again and again for millions of years. It was before 10,000 years ago that the earth began to gain some temperature. The melting sheets of ice either ushered into lakes or left behind broad valleys having a mixture of soil and rock. The stocks of ice that remained unchanged were those in the high cliffs. The present day glaciers are indeed remains of the ice age.
Aggasiz was the first scientist who ventured out to study the traces of the ice age. When Aggasiz coined the term ‘erratic’ for boulders and for the first time explained that the boulders are glacier remains — people raised buzz that he was crazy!
Human Habitat during the Ice Age
Over the stretch of ice age, humans used to hunt their food. When an animal, such as mammoth fell prey, men would kill it. It would be subsequently dismembered — cut into pieces comprising of big chunks to be kept in their caves. The whole family would participate in the cooking process from hunting to final cooking. These people are speculated to have existed some 35,000 years before.
European countries like France, Britain, Spain and Germany were experiencing frost round the year during ice age. Sheets of ice at Poles had been much cold than they are today. No one knows how, why or what caused the ice age to start and then why did it stop after 25,000 years.
All we can surmise is the fact that it was there and is waning very slowly. This explains why the people living in that age couldn’t realize the age was becoming colder and colder for them and as such they were turning to be ice-age hunters. Most of them would populate in western, central zones of Europe.
The lands were shaped quite differently because of this overwhelming mass of ice. The land seemed ‘bare’ for it had been too cold to let beech and oak trees to grow. However, sporadic growth of fir trees might be there. No grassy growths, just little shrubs and moss could have been seen in North America, Europe and Asia; Arctic Plain can still be witness there!
The impact of English dressing in America, the industrial boom, and the influence fashion witnessed on English and American civilization has been recorded over the course of century in terms of different literary devices.
Fashion in 19th century transatlantic literature has broadcasted the significance and development of fashion British author Charles dickens cites references regarding the importance of the female seamstress and the part she contributed in English society, and ideals covering femininity in one of his novels, Little Dorrit (Famine 55).
American Notes of Dickens still exhibit an obsession with both the American and English fashion, as he opined that the attire of American women. In Th Dark City, Leander Richardson holds a comparison between fashion trends in Boston and New York with those prevailed in London. He starizes the trends in American women to copy their British counterparts. All this dynamism of fashion gives shape to fashion in his works as a ‘transatlantic industrial market.
Godey’s Lady’s Book, the American Magazine, editor being Sara Joshua Hale links 19th century fashion as a manifestation of moral based values of the time. Her appreciation of Queen Victoria’s style of dress in 1968 unraveled her approach toward dressing of women exhibiting the English morality.
Early 20th Century
Over the course of early 20th century, all high class fashion practically appeared in Paris and to some extent in London as well. Fashion magazines published in other countries have been sending editors to the Paris fashion shows. Departmental stores had been sending buyers to the Paris shows, where they would buy garments to copy design or would readily plagiarize idea, or some times the whole design scheme.
Both kind of garments — measure-to-measure salons and ready-to-wear departments offered up-to-date trends of Paris — tailored to the expectations of stores pertaining to different lifestyles and target client’s pocket books.
With the advent of the 20th century fashion magazines began to depict photographs and assumed even more momentum than in the past. The metropolitan life all over the world much demanded these fine pieces of brochures as they would profoundly govern popular taste. Demonstrators, such as, Georges Lepape, Paul Iribe, George Barbier and Erte developed exotic fashion plates for such magazines as, La Gazette du bon ton, founded by Vogel in 1912, and published them periodically till 1925, excluding the years of the Great War.
Period between WWI and WWII
The time span between the great wars is believed to be the Golden Age of French fashion by most of the experts of the industry. It was an age of swift transformation, to better put, the reformation. As the age witnessed carriages replacing cars, monarchies dethroned, and ‘haute couture’ got new customers in the guise of movie personae, American heiresses and women of elite or industrialist class!